Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

  • A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is an abnormal communication between the right ventricle and left ventricle
  • A VSD can be a single defect or multiple defects.
  • A VSD can be found in isolation or associated with numerous variants of congenital heart disease (i.e.- TOF, truncus arteriosis, PA/IVS, transposition of the great arteries)


  • Approximately 20% of all CHD
  • Incidence varies widely (5-50/100,000) and is likely underestimated
    • secondary to spontaneous closure of smaller defects in fetal life and early postnatal life
  • Slightly greater prevalence in females

Types of VSDs

  • Perimembranous (aka paramembranous, membranous) (80%)
  • Muscular (aka trabecular) (5–20%)
  • Doubly Committed Subarterial (aka conal septal, doubly committed juxta-arterial, subpulmonary, supracristal, outlet) (5–7%)
  • Inlet (aka AV canal type) (5–8%)