Mitral valve prolapse is an abnormality in the mitral valve which may result secondary to abnormalities in a portion of the mitral valve apparatus (leaflets, chordae or papillary muscles) which results in disruption of the mitral valve apparatus secondary to a combination of leaflet and chordal extensibility, redundancy and elongation. This may affect the anterior and/or posterior leaflet of the mitral valve and cause the mitral leaflet to billow or buckle into the left atrium during systole. It commonly occurs secondary to myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve leaflets and chordae tendinae. The degree of mitral regurgitation depends on the severity of prolapse and the degree of disruption to the leaflet coaptation. Mitral valve prolapse can be idiopathic, but also may be inherited in various autosomal dominant or x-lined genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, adult polycystic kidney disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, SLE, polyarteritis nodosa and muscular dystrophies. MVP is more common among patients with Graves disease, hypomastia, von Willebrand syndrome, sickle cell disease, and rheumatic heart disease.
Dal-Bianco et al. Basic Mechanisms of Mitral Regurgitation, Armstrong G et al. Merck Manual. Mitral valve Prolapse (MVP)